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INDEPENDENT COMMERCIAL BUSINESS DIVISION: See ASSEMBLAGE OF RELATED SERVICES

In order to offer Tech Craftsman Career Building Trade School's interns/apprentices more than just going to work, becasue that's what TCCBTS is all about, 24 months, working 5 days a week and 8 hours each one of those 5 day weeks, yes, its a school but learning as if it was a job.

TCCBTS's goal is to reward our first-year interns/apprentices by expending their experiences so they can show off their skill while still going to school.

How? Easy we're going to create and develop several, Independent Commercial Businesses for the interns/apprentices to work before class or after class or both, and allowed to work on weekends and paid $15.00 dollars an hour. Now the interns/apprentices are not only earning real money, but learning on the job skill social by interacting with real customers asking for their experience and help.

INDEPENDENT COMMERCIAL BUSINESS DIVISION
Review: Assemblage of Auto Related Services to better under each individual commercial businesses. Read and Review ASSEMBLAGE OF RELATED SERVICES

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How (WARD) Can Help Fix Your Car

Engine Removal, Disassembly, Reassembly and Starting

Instruction on engine removal should cover most vehicles and their engines, these instruction should be a big help.

Engine Removal:

[1.] To do a complete overhaul the engine must be disassembled for cleaning

[2.] First disconnect the battery ground cable

[3.] Remove the air cleaner and label all wires and vacuum lines

[4.] The air cleaner on a typical port fuel injected engine is located off to the side and is connected to the fuel system by a molded hose

[5.] If possible leave the wires connected to the alternator; unbolt it and use wire to fasten it to something our of the way

[6.] Most people use masking tape to label any electrical wiring that must be disconnected, but I labels the connections with wire attached to my labels so I can attach to both ends of all electrical wire connections being disconnected, that way there is no mistake and easier to read when doing the reassembly into the vehicle.

[7.] Many of the hoses being removed are different sizes, but is still a good path to follow so no mistakes are made. Either use masking tape to number or color code, the hoses being removed. The use of wire on a thick card and then wrap the wire around each end of the hoses to identify where they reconnect to. Affix two pieces of masking tape or the other recommended identify methods use, use any of the methods to show the connection where the hose were removed.

[8.] Draw a map of vacuum diagram; assign a number to each hose on the map and where ti connects to frame and engine

[9.] Drain coolant and oil, including the oil filter

[10.] Remove the vehicle engine compartment's hood, before the removal mark the location of the hood hinges; remove the highest hood bolts first. Do not store hood with it standing up so the the paint on the part set aside will not be damaged. Place fender cover on the roof of the vehicle and place the hood on top the the fender cover.

[11.] Remove the radiator.

[12.] Automatic transmission equipped with a heat exchanger (cooler) in the bottom or side tank of the radiator, hose removed from transmission must be removed and plugged. Transmission fluid ranges from 35 to psi.

[13.] If the vehicle is equipped with a distributor and spark cables, known as (Mechanical Ignition System) remove both the distributor and spark plug cables. There are two other types of ignition systems, electronic ignition systems, to disconnect the (electronic ignition system) is much the same as the distributor and spark plug system. the distributor-less ignition systems, these systems have multiple ignition coils, just unplug each individual coil.

[14.] Remove the alternator and accessory wiring. First remove the alternator, leave the wires connected to the alternator, simply unbolt if and use a wire to fasten it to something, use masking tape or other methods to label any electrical wiring that must be disconnected. Other methods is to disconnect the wires, label the wires and leave the alternator connected to the engine and remove after engine has been removed

[15.] If engine is equipped with a belt-driven fan clutch, store it facing up or sideways, not upside down.

[16.] If engine is cleaned before removal, protect the alternator so cleaning soap does not damage alternator bearings. After engine is cleaned, be sure to clearly label the electrical connections to the starter and oil pressure and coolant temperature sending units.

[17.] Remove the heater hoses and ground straps. The heater has a control valve in one of the heater hoses. Label the hose that comes from the coolant pump so it can be reattached there later.

[18.] A mission or broken ground strap can cause failure of a transmission bushing, wheel bearing, or emergency brake cable. This is because electricity follows the shortest path to ground, causing etching.

[19.] Remove switches and sensors. Newer engines have coolant temperature sensors that supply the PCM with information on engine coolant temperature. In response to this input, the PCM commands electrical devices, called actuators, to switch emission control devices on as engine temperature rises.

[20.] Engine with distributor-less ignitions have crankshaft position sensors, sometimes they have camshaft sensors, too. Late model engines also have detonation sensors, also called knock sensors.

[21.] Bleed fuel system pressure

[22.} Remove and plug the fuel line.

[23.] Remove intake manifold and valve covers. Remove throttle linkage or cable, then remove the valve covers and motor motor mounts bolts, injectors, sensor wires, and harnesses must be disconnected before engine is removed from vehicle, the intake manifold can also be removed.

[24.] Mark accessory brackets and remove accessories. Any accessory brackets such as air conditioning, that are attached to the head or block may be removed

[25.] Remove exhaust components. Because of rust exhaust pipe bolts will be difficult to remove and have a tendency to break, spray penetrating oil on them. After spraying penetration oil on the bolts, slightly tighten the bolts to help the penetrating oil to get into the threads. Use an impact wrench with six-point socket to remove most engine items.

[26.] The oxygen sensor, disconnect the wire to the sensor; the sensor can be left in the exhaust manifold. Use an oxygen sensor socket if it has to be removed the exhaust manifold.

[27.] Determine whether to remove the transmission before engine removal, locate recommended procedure in the service literature.

[28.] Determine whether to remove the transmission or not, but if you do then make center punch marks on the converter and flex-plate sop they may be correctly aligned on reassembly. If impact wrench is used, the crankshaft will not have to be held to keep it from turning. To gain access to bolt, rotate the engine by turning the crankshaft with a large socket and breaker bar on the damper bolt at the front of the engine.

[29.] With automatic transmission, to remove the bolts it is best to have 3 to 6 foot extensions with a larger impact wrench maybe needed, some of the impact is absorbed by the long extension.

[30.] Unbolt the rear transmission crossmember allowing the rear of the transmission to drop. This gives you access to the top engine-to-transmission attaching bolts and transmission cooler located high on some transmissions.

[31.] When unbolting the engine mounts, mark them with a paint pen or center punch to show which side the mount is the front and which side is left or right.

Engine Disassembly:

[1.0] Mound engine on a stand.

[2.] Remove damper bolts with an impact wrench on the puller screw because the crankshaft will not have to be held to keep it from turning.

[3.] Some engines, the timing cover seal can be removed before removing the timing cover. Many time cover seals are removed and replaced from the inside of the timing cover.

[4.] Remove the timing cover and cam drive assembly

[5.] Overhead cam, remove the chain or belt tensioner to remove the cam drive.

[6.] Remove cylinder heads. Mark one of the cylinder heads if more than one, left or right, and remove the heads. Remember: left when viewed from the flywheel end.

[7.] Use manual to remove head bolts in sequence. Removal of head bolts in the opposite order of the tightening sequence can help prevent heads from cracking, also prevents warping the head, especially with aluminum. Aluminum heads should be cold before removing them to prevent warpage.

[8.] After removing the head, look for evidence of coolant or oil leakage, save the head gaskets until job is complete.

[9.] Remove the dipstick tube.

Cylinder Block Disassembly:

[1.] When a cylinder wears, a ridge forms at the top of the cylinder called ring ridge, most of the engines of 2000 do not have that problem. If there is ring ridge the cylinder walls will require reboring and honing for oversized pistons. Rule of Thumb, if the ridge can catch a fingernail moving upwards, good candidate for rebore and new oversized pistons and rings. Pistons can only be removed through the top of the block. Use a ring ridge remover to remove before removing the pistons

[2.] Once the damper and flywheel have been removed from the engine, turn the crankshaft with a wrench, when the jaw contacts the (woodruff key on the crank. There is a special tool that fits over the end of the crank and engages the woodruff key.

[3.] Mark main bearing and connecting rod caps: turn the engine over so the crankcase is facing up, mark the mains and rods if not previously been marked, main and rod caps are not interchangeable, main caps only on in one direction.

[4.] Remove and inspect the piston and rod assembly: To (BDC) Bottom Dead Center, so the rods will clear the crank during piston removal. Use a brass hammer to lightly tap on the end of the rod bolts to loosen the rod caps for easy removal. Use rod bolt protectors before removal or reassembling. Carefully push the rod and piston assembly out of the top of the bore. Use the rubber handle of the hammer or a dowel to push the piston and rod from the bore, removing out of the cylinder at the top of the engine.

[5.] DO NOT drop a piston and rod, it is unbalanced and can easily be knocked off a bench, lay piston and rod assemblies on their sides to prevent a costly mishap.

NOTE: Connecting rod caps are not interchangeable. Immediately reinstall the rod cap on the rod.

[6.] Inspect the piston, rings, rod, and bearings: if the rod bearing falls out as the piston and rod are removed from the cylinder, check for detonation damage, especially on the upper rod bearings.

[7.] Inspect the piston for obvious wear and breakage. Check and inspect each cylinder for wear. Inspect oil rings to see if they are plugged.

Remove the Crankshaft and Bearings:

  • Remove the main caps. They fit tightly in a register in the block; they need to be pried loose. Carefully lift out the crankshaft. You can leave the flywheel or flexplate bolted to the crank to help hold it up right during storage, or the flywheel or flexplate can be removed before removing the crankshaft.
  • Check the condition of the crankshaft surface where the rear main seal rides
  • Inspect the bearing surfaces of the crankshaft for wear. Measure the main and connecting rod journals with a micrometer and compare them to specifications.
  • Inspect the Thrust Bearing Surfaces these surfaces control fore and aft movement of the crankshaft, wear is usually located on the rear side.
  • As the main bearings are removed from the block, lay them in a row. If crankshaft is bent or the crankcase is out of alignment, you can see the wear.
  • Reinstall the main bearing caps in their proper sequence on the block: Retorque them before hot-tanking the block.
  • Remove the camshaft; some engines use a bolt on cam thrust plate.
  • Varnish often builds up on the edges of the cam journals, making too hard to remove the cam, squirt penetrating oil on the varnish, reinstall the cam sprocket and use as a handle to remove the cam.

NOTE: Engine is mounted on an engine stand and the cam will not come out, support the cam gear end of the block. Blocks will sag just enough to bind the cam, true on in-line six cylinder engines.

NOTE: Impact screwdriver is all it takes to remove a tight "Phillip" head screw without damaging the screw head

  • Engine up-side down position, move the lifters to their highest positions toward the head by turning the camshaft one complete revolution, use a piece of wooden dowel to finish pushing the lifters into their bores so they clear the cam. Remove Cam and do not nick.

Remove and Label Cam Bearings:

[1.] Usually inexpensive to replace, note and record their oil hole locations.

  • Label the bearings with a felt marker, put them in labeled baggies, they may need to be referred to when determining which block positions the new bearing will go into.

Remove core plugs, also known as freeze plugs:

  • Remove core plug before hot-tanking the block, use a large punch or a large pair of pliers, they cannot be reinstalled once removed.

  • NOTE: Be careful not to pound core plugs against the side of a cylinder wall, could damage or distort a cylinder wall resulting in a scuffed piston.

  • Following cleaning, oil galleries must be cleaned with a brush, (rifle cleaning brush is recommended), to clean the galleries after the plugs that are sealing the ends of the galleries are removed.
  • When engine block is cleaned, replace the main caps and torque the bolts to help keep the block properly stressed during any engine machining processes.

Ordering Parts:

After block has been stripped, inspect all parts for wear and make a list of new parts that are needed.

Removing the Crankshaft Timing Sprocket and Woodruff Key:

Be careful not to damage the key, make sure the sprocket and key is removed before sending in the core.

Determining Part Sizes:

Engines size can be determined in several ways, The cylinder bore diameter and the diameter of the crankshaft journals can be measured and compared to specifications. Measure all parts, some parts the manufacturers put in oversized parts, always measure your old and new parts.

  • Engine rebuilders use books or computer programs that list casting numbers, these numbers identify blocks, crankshafts, cylinder heads, and other parts by groups as they were cast in the factory.
  • For instance, heads with the same casting numbers could have different sized valves.
  • Some manufacturers use casting numbers that give information regarding the date and place of manufacture.
  • The top of the piston can be cleaned to see if it is oversize.

Valve Job or Head Gasket Repair:

[1.] Engine must be cold before removing the head. When the head is bolted to the block, it forms a rigid unit. Unbolting a hot cylinder head (especially aluminum) can cause parts to warp.

[2.] Unbolt the head in a direction opposite to the normal tightening sequence. You can leave the manifold's bolted to an in-line head during a head gasket repair.

[3.] Check cleanliness of head bolt threads as each one is removed.

[4.] Use a tap to chase only the bolt holes in the block that correspond to dirty head bolt threads.

[5.] Small wire brush on a die grinder is also effective in cleaning threads.

CAUTION:

  • Before reinstalling a cylinder head, use suction gun or air nozzle to remove any oil or water from a blind head bolt, (use an air gun to blow water or oil from any and all bolt holes that dead ends, or bolt holes that do not go completely through any solid metal)
  • Never use an impact wrench to tighten the bolts or the block can be cracked next to the bolt hole because the water or oil does not have time to seep between the threads.

NOTE:

An engine that has enough piston-to-valve clearance to prevent contact is known as a free wheeling engine.

When reinstalling the head on an OHC, Over Head Cam, engine it is very important that the number 2 piston be at TDC, Top Dead Center, and the cam turned in the head until it is timed properly

Flywheel Ring Gear Services:

Vehicles with manual transmission/transaxles have a replaceable ring gear on the flywheel

  • A defective starter sometimes results in damage to teeth on a flywheel ring gear
  • To remove the work ring gear from the flywheel, drill a hole between the teeth and break the ring with a chisel.
  • Installing new ring gear, heat the new ring gear evenly around its circumference during installation, do not heat more than 400F (204C) to much heat removes hardness of the metal.
  • Temperatures can be checked using (Temp -i-stick) is like pencil-shaped sticks leaving a melted film on the ring gear when hotter than 400.
  • Temperatures can be checked by polishing several spots on the ring gear using emery cloth or sandpaper, heat the ring gear until the spots turn blue.
  • Solder can be used to check the temperature on a ring gear. When the solder melts, the ring gear is hot enough and can be positioned onto the flywheel
  • Reassembly and Starting

    [1.] Before beginning engine assembly:

  • Look for service information for special instructions, ( there many free sites at any public library) to locate the special instructions.
  • Have tightening (torque) specifications handy
  • Thoroughly clean and recondition all parts
  • Obtain all replacement parts, (such never reuse head bolts, flywheel or flexplate bolts) always replace with new bolts.
  • When an engine fails because it was overheated, before reassembly, check coolant temperature sensor, fan relay, check if they are defective, many rebuilders install temperature indicating tabs, to indicate whether an engine has been run at temperatures that would or could damage the engine and void the warranty.

    [2.] Before beginning reassembly, inspect and count all new parts.

  • All threaded holes should have been chased with a tap.
  • Before reinstalling bolts, re-tap any threads appearing overlooked.
  • Fastener should turn into a hole with a finger pressure only, if not something is wrong, never force threads together with hand tools or impact wrench.
  • After fully assembled engine, cleanliness during assembly is a must, when stopping work cover engine, use a trash bag or large plastic wrap that can surround the engine, anything large enough to cover engine to protect it from dirt.
  • Bolts or studs threaded into aluminum should be coated with ant-seize compound to prevent the aluminum from oxidizing to the bolt.
  • Assembly Lubricants

    During assembly, apply a generous amount of lubricant to all possible wear areas.

    If it moves, Lube it!

  • Assembly lubricants are used on high-load parts such as cam lobes on cam-in-blocks engines
  • Assembly lube with the consistency of grease at room temperature is desirable in case engine is left sitting for a long period of time before installed in vehicle.
  • NOTE:

    Do not underestimate the importance of substantial amounts of a suitable lubricant, during those first few minutes of engine operation (or attempted operation) before oil has been distributed and splashed on all of the engine surfaces, engine wear and damage can result.

    Crankshaft Installation:

    Several item need to be observed when preparing a crankshaft for installation, including sprocket installation and oil gallery and rear seal surface cleaning.

  • Woodruff Key Installation, check the woodruff key to see if perfectly flat in its crankshaft groove
  • Crankshaft Sprocket Installation
  • Assembler's Responsibility, clean all crankshaft oil passageways.
  • Be sure the crankshaft surface that the rear seal rides against is clean, use emery cloth, clean and lubricate the surface.
  • NOTE:

    Always use latex gloves when installing bearings, never touch with your hands or fingers

    NOTE:

    When using a reground crank and new bearings, check the clearance of at least one main bearing and one connecting rod

    Bearing making sure the right bearings are being installed.

    NOTE:

  • early all engines are left-hand engines. A left-hand engine is one that turns counter-clock-wise when viewing the engine from the flywheel side.
  • When a left-hand engine has oil spit holes on the connecting rods, the spit holes are to the right when the piston notches are facing forward.
  • Installing OHC, Overhead Cam Heads

  • Before installing overhead cam heads on the engine, #1 piston must be at TDC and camshaft must be turned in the head unit its timing mark is properly located. Otherwise, valves held open by the cam might be forced against piston bending the valves as head bolts are tightened.
  • Shop Tips:

    OHC engines have an oil seal behind the timing sprocket. To make seal installation easier, loosen the front cam cap and install the seal before you install the timing sprocket.

    Position the cam correctly before installing the cylinder head, if possible Special procedures must be followed to correctly position the camshaft(s) after installing the head(s) Set Camshaft Position:

  • Align the TDC timing mark found on the cam sprocket with the corresponding mark on the head.
  • Position the timing mark on the crankshaft pulley at TDC
  • When the cam and crank sprockets are positioned correctly, timing chain can be installed.
  • This overhead camshaft is positioned at TDC

    Dual overhead cam engines have a separate camshaft for the intake valves and exhaust valves

    Using impact wrench to tighten retaining bolts on an OHC camshaft sprocket can sometimes result in a broken camshaft snout.

    When vibration damper is not pressed-fit on the crankshaft, install a large washer behind the damper retaining bolt.

  • To determine which piston is at TDC, rotate the crankshaft by hand until the intake and exhaust valves for any cylinder are both "rocking" (moving in opposite directions at the same time)
  • The rocking happens during valve overlap at TDC as the intake stroke begins and the exhaust stroke ends.
  • The valve clearance for this cylinder's companion can now be adjusted, because the companion cylinder is one-half turn of the camshaft away with its lobes facing away from the valves
  • Typical OHC valve adjustment on a head with rocker arms. This is done while the lobe faces away from the rocker arm. be careful measuring adjustable valve clearance, if you think the clearance is too loose, try fitting a 0.001" thicker feeler gauge into the opening, this is called the (go, no-go method) of checking valve lash can prevent problems.
  • Hydraulic Lifter Lash Adjustment:

    Best to adjust hydraulic lifter lash on V-type engines before the intake manifold is installed, you will be able to see the lifters that are on the heel of the cam lobes and are positioned low in their bores.

    Completion of Assembly:

    A good paint job is an important part of a professional engine rebuild, exhaust manifolds should not be painted, so paint the engine before installing the manifolds.

    Apply a thin layer of grease to exhaust gasket surfaces. This makes it easier to remove paint from these areas. Screw old spark plugs into the plug holes during painting.

    Spray one light coast of paint, Called a Tack Coat, wait until it becomes tacky to the touch.

    spray the second coat, spraying the second coat after the first coat become Tacky will prevent runs and promote better paint coverage.

    Install Exhaust Manifold(s):

  • After painting the engine install the exhaust manifold(s)
  • Tighten manifold bolts from the center out so the manifold will not crack, if dowel holes are in the exhaust manifold that align with dowels in the cylinder head, make sure these holes are larger than the dowels. If not enough clearance because of the buildup of foreign material around the dowel, the manifold will not be able to expand properly and might crack.
  • Tighten the individual manifold-to-engine bolts first, and then tighten the bolts where the two parts meet.
  • Install Flywheel or Flexplate:

  • On automatic transmission vehicle, before installing the torque converter, it's a good practice to replace the front pump seal.
  • Be certain the torque converter is correctly engaged with transmission front pump gear.
  • It will drop deeper into the transmission; the drive lugs on the converter should be felt engaging the transmission pump gear.
  • Failure to install the converter correctly can damage the transmission pump.
  • When a torque converter is installed into an automatic transmission, at least (three 3) areas must align wiht other members:
  • [1.] The pump drive

    [2.] The stator support splines

    [3.] The input shaft splines.

    Install Engine Mounts:

  • Install engine mounts bolts loosely on the block during engine installation so the mounts can be more easily aligned with the fame mount brackets.
  • A rolling head prybar is handy when aligning mounts.
  • Use the pointed end to line up the mount bolt holes before installing the mount bolts.
  • Do not use engine mount bolts to pull V-type engines into place. Use shims if necessary to fill any gaps between the mount and block.
  • Engine Installation:

  • If transmission was not removed from the vehicle, sue a floor jack or a transmission jact under the transmission to help align it with the engine.
  • Connect Accessories:

  • Attach the exhaust pipes using new nuts. Brass nuts are preferable, if available.
  • Install all pulleys, accessories, and belts. If engine has V-belts, use a belt tension gauge to adjust belt tension.
  • Install Fuel System Components:

  • Install the fuel injection rails, hoses, and electrical connectors
  • Prime The Lubrication System:

  • Install the sending units for temperature and oil pressure.
  • After installing the oil filter, add oil to the crankcase and prime the system.
  • On rebuilt engine, use a Pressure Primer: $30.00 OEM V6-V8 oil pump primer, (most auto parts stores).
  • Fill the oil filter
  • Fill the oil housing with low melting point assembly lubricate during engine assembly so the oil pump can begin pumping as soon as the engine is cranked.
  • Remove all spark plugs and crank engine until oil pressure registers for 30 seconds.
  • Install Valve Covers:

  • When oil is apparent at the rocker arms, the engine is primed and the valve covers can be installed.
  • It is easier to position the engine a TDC on (#1 one), before installing the valve covers, So do that first
  • If all valve cover screws cannot be screwed in easily by hand, try installing the valve cover in the opposite direction.
  • Distributor-less Ignitions:

    Distributor-less, or direct ignition systems, are common on newer vehicles. With these ignition systems, each cylinder will have its won coil or sometimes two cylinders share a coil.

    The Following Break-In Procedures:

  • Do not allow excessive engine idle for the first 3 hours of rebuilt engine operation
  • Keep in the normal rpm range at about 75% load for the first 2 to 3 hours
  • Engine speed should be varied as much as possible.
  • Full load or high-speed operation should be limited to less than 3 to 3 minutes at a time
  • After high load operation, allow the engine to return to a stable operating temperature by running a light load before shutting it off.
  • Return after 500 miles for an oil and filter change.
  • Oil consumption on an overhauled engine with cast iron rings might not stabilize until all parts have broken in (seated)

    500-Mile Inspection:

    Follow an engine rebuild, check the following items:

  • Check oil level
  • Check for oil leaks
  • Change oil and filer
  • Check coolant levels
  • Pressure test cooling system
  • Inspect hoses ands retighten hose clamps
  • Retorque all exposed fasteners
  • Check tension of belts
  • Adjust valves as required
  • Retorque all head bolts as required